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Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy).
A paper from 2004 compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and suggested that the two systems are related.
Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.
Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process.
This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid".
Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.
Disregarding intermediates, the basic distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way in which the genetic material is processed.